What Was the Berlin Agreement

The Nixon administration saw solving the concrete problems dividing Europe as a priority for a successful foreign policy of détente – the easing of hostility or tense tensions between countries through negotiation rather than confrontation. One of these problems was 20 years of disagreement over the ideal solution for Berlin. Although the ideal solution to the Berlin question was reunification, it was simply not a possibility given the tensions between all those responsible. The Soviet Union agreed to improve communication between West and East Berlin and the German Democratic Republic and the visiting rights of West Berliners. It was also agreed that the Federal Republic of Germany could represent the western sectors of Berlin abroad if the security and status of the city were not affected, and that the international agreements and arrangements concluded by the Federal Republic could be extended to the western sectors. On November 10, 1958, Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev called on the United States and its allies to abandon their occupation roles in Berlin. He also said that if they did not sign a corresponding agreement within six months, the Soviet Union would no longer abide by its post-war agreement and would conclude a separate treaty with East Germany. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower rejected Khrushchev`s demands, insisting that their Berlin agreement would continue. On the 27th. In November, the Soviet Union announced that it had rejected post-war agreements on the occupation and governance of Germany and West Berlin.

Khrushchev also suggested that Berlin become a free city. Although Khrushchev did not suggest that the Soviet Union would use military force if the United States did not comply, it was common knowledge that the Soviet Union intended to justify its threat. The treaty formally recognized the independence of the de facto sovereign principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and the autonomy of Bulgaria, although the latter functioned de facto independently and was divided into three parts: the Principality of Bulgaria, the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia, which was returned to the Ottomans.[6] thus destroying Russian plans for an independent and Russophile “Greater Bulgaria”. The Treaty of San Stefano had created a Bulgarian state, which was exactly what Britain and Austria-Hungary feared most. [7] – The Soviet guarantee of unhindered and preferential civil transport between the western sectors of Berlin and the Federal Republic of Germany is a central fact of the agreement and a significant improvement. 4. The four governments agree that, notwithstanding the various legal opinions, the situation which has developed in that territory and as defined in this Agreement and in the other agreements referred to in this Agreement may not be unilaterally altered. By reaffirming the existence of the rights and duties of the four powers for the future of Berlin and Germany as a whole (which the Soviets claimed to have abolished in the wake of the Berlin Crisis of 1959-1962), the agreement laid the foundations for a series of East-West agreements that ushered in the period commonly known as détente. It has also restored connections between the two parts of Berlin, improved travel and communication between the two parts of the city, and made many improvements to residents of the western sectors. The Treaty of Berlin (officially the treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire on the settlement of affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878. [1] [2] After the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, the great powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They cancelled out some of the extreme gains russia claimed in the provisional treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their most important possessions in Europe. It was one of the three main peace treaties in the period following the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The German Otto von Bismarck was the president and the dominant personality. As the new U.S. government Pres. John F. Kennedy took office in 1961 and the situation in Berlin warmed up. At the Vienna Summit in June 1961, Khrushchev repeated his threat that if no Berlin agreement was reached by December, the Soviet Union would sign a separate treaty with the GDR (an agreement that West Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt derogatorily described as Khrushchev “marrying himself”). Kennedy made it clear that Berlin was of the utmost strategic importance to the United States and that free access to the city should be maintained. On September 3, 1971, the parties made a breakthrough in the negotiations. The aim of this round of discussions was to promote practical regulations that would improve conditions for West Berliners and remove irritated barriers. The four powers` agreement on Berlin stipulated that the United States and Britain refused to accept Soviet demands, arguing that a free Berlin with no guaranteed access to the West would soon be controlled by communist East Germany. Several attempts to find a diplomatic solution have failed.

In September 1959, talks between the United States and the Soviet Union were held at Camp David, but no agreement was reached, and a May 1960 summit in Paris collapsed in the wake of the so-called U-2 affair triggered by the downing of an American spy plane over the Soviet Union. With the Allied agreement, the basic treaty (in force in June 1973) recognized two German states, and both countries undertook to respect each other`s sovereignty. In accordance with the provisions of the Treaty, diplomatic missions should be exchanged and commercial, tourist, cultural and communication relations established. Under the Agreement and the Treaty, the two German states acceded to the United Nations in September 1973. In the early months of 1971, Secretary of State Douglas-Home`s briefing insisted that the Soviet proposals on Berlin were a “deliberate attempt to undermine the Western position” and that Allied authority should be maintained. In June, the Western insistence that the idea of a European security conference without an acceptable Berlin agreement was a failure seemed to lead to a stalemate. By August 1971, however, East and West had clearly decided, for a complex number of reasons, that an agreement was desirable. The context was the broader interest in improving Western security, the Mutual and Balanced Force Needs Talks (MBFR), the Middle East negotiations, and China-US relations. At the Berlin talks, the US and Soviet ambassadors forced the pace, and a draft text was approved on 18 August. The Federal Foreign Office considered that the agreement met the basic requirements of the Western allies, although it strengthened the status of the GDR and tacitly acknowledged that the Berlin Wall would remain here. Douglas-Home called it a “good deal”; The Prime Minister disagreed, although accepting his signature “may well be fair if we are willing to acknowledge the realities.” It could also improve the political atmosphere and pave the way for the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), which would become the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in 1973.

The divided city of Berlin had been the Cold War fault line since 1945. The construction of the Wall in 1961 concretized the ideological, political and military competition between East and West. The problems in Berlin were a useful stick to beat the other side, and until the late 1960s, any constructive agreement seemed far away. The West opposed the recognition of the GDR, while the Soviet Union complained about the activities of the FRG. .